After compounds enter the body, they are metabolized by the gut and liver and then cleared by the kidney. The interconnection and communications between these three organs contribute greatly to drug metabolism and disease progression.
Metabolic pathways and mechanisms between the gut, kidney, and liver are complicated and tough to replicate in static in vitro culture systems. Simultaneous culture of three organs while retaining in vivo functionalities is difficult and often not reproducible. Two-dimensional, static models also lack the ability to measure pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters from drug and metabolite flow from the gut to the liver to the kidney.
Organ chips are translational models that can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo analysis of cell and drug interactions. By providing a dynamic environment, the fluid flow recapitulates physiological cell functions and even replicates the natural flow and processing of drugs from organ to organ.