The life cycle of drug compounds in the body includes administration, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Each of these steps occurs in one or more organs when the drug flows through the body, which includes the gut, liver, and kidney. But as the therapeutic compounds are processed, they are broken down into metabolites and waste products that may affect each organ differently.
In order for therapeutics to reach target sites, they must efficiently pass through barriers on and between organs and vasculature. It is also critical to ensure that metabolites of therapeutic compounds are not toxic to the organs processing them. Three-dimensional, flow-driven culture platforms like organ chip allow not only multiple cell types to form organ-like structures but also concurrent analysis of drug flow from organ to organ.